Início Estruturas O Que São Os Estádios do Concreto?

O Que São Os Estádios do Concreto?

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Imagine a seguinte situação: Em um laboratório de engenharia civil, o engenheiro chefe faz uma viga viga bi apoiada e coloca, no meio dela, uma prensa hidráulica, produzindo uma carga concentrada, esse procedimento é conhecido como ensaio de flexão, como no vídeo abaixo:

 

 

Conforme a carga aplicada na viga aumenta, a peça de concreto passa por fases de fissuração e deformação até que o rompimento ocorra de fato.

Essas fases formam os Estádios I, II e III do concreto:

 


Estádio I

No Estádio I, a carga aplicada na peça solicita um esforço de tração menor que a resistência à tração do próprio concreto (sem armadura), que é algo em torno de 10% da resistência à compressão.

O grande problema de se trabalhar nesse estádio é a necessidade de se fazer peças com dimensões exageradas, tornando inviável a produção de edificações.

 


Estádio II

No Estádio II, a carga aplicada passa a ser o suficiente para gerar fissuras na região tracionada do concreto, nesse momento a armadura passa a ser necessária, resistindo à tração que o concreto não resiste.

Trabalhando com esse estádio conseguimos produzir peças mais viáveis, já que podemos aproveitar a região comprimida da peça utilizando concreto e a região tracionada utilizando o aço.

 


Estádio III

No Estádio III, a carga aplicada beira o limite de resistência da peça, gerando fissuras não apenas na região tracionada da peça, mas também fissuras de cisalhamento (como na imagem abaixo).

fissuras

Ensaio de viga à flexão

Quando trabalhamos com esse estádio, normalmente, há a necessidade da aplicação de armadura dupla na região tracionada, bem como a utilização de armadura transversal (estribos) para resistir às forças de cisalhamento.

Trabalhando com esse estádio conseguimos atingir uma relação custo-benefício muito melhor que no estádio anterior, já que passamos a conseguir produzir peças menores, mais leves e mais eficientes para uma mesma carga.

Falando de custo-benefício, a utilização de peças menores e mais leves gera uma outra situação de economia em uma edificação, já que, com uma estrutura mais leve, podemos ter também fundações mais baratas.

 


Linha Neutra

 

Essa relação entre a carga aplicada e as resistências (do concreto e do aço) gera ainda um outro objeto de estudo: A modificação da posição da linha neutra:

A linha neutra é a superfície de uma viga que separa as regiões tracionadas das regiões comprimidas, como na imagem abaixo:

Linha neutra

No estádio I a linha neutra passa abaixo do centro geométrico da peça;

No estádio II a linha neutra passa em uma região próxima ao centro da peça, e;

No estádio III a linha neutra passa acima do centro geométrico da peça.

Estádios3

Isso significa que, no estádio I teremos a maior parte da massa da peça sendo comprimida e, no estádio III, a maior parte da massa da peça estará sendo tracionada.

O cálculo da posição da linha é abordado de forma prática no artigo O Que São Os Domínios do Concreto?.

 


 

O entendimento dos estádios do concreto é essencial para a otimização de uma estrutura, principalmente no que diz respeito à relação custo-benefício, já que, entendendo melhor como uma estrutura funciona, podemos tentar extrair o máximo desempenho dela com o mínimo custo.

 

Até uma próxima, abraço!

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